Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV) seriously damages citrus production by reducing the quality and yield of fruit. To avoid contamination with SDV, mother trees are checked to be SDV-free in advance of nursery tree distribution. In this study, we compared an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) kit with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DASELISA) for large-scale diagnosis of SDV in orchardgrown trees in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.
The two methods gave conflicting results for 11 of 1,705 samples, all of which were negative by DAS-ELISA but positive by ICA. The samples scored as positive by either DASELISA or ICA were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and all were confirmed to be positive. These results validate the use of ICA as a screening method for large-scale diagnosis. Strain discrimination revealed that 16 of 22 isolates belonged to SDV, while citrus mosaic virus (CiMV) infection only and co-infection (SDV and CiMV) were in a minority.
Evaluation of three commercially available ELISA kits for the determination of chromogranin A
Chromogranin A (CgA) is currently the most valuable tumor biomarker for diagnostic work-up, management and follow-up of neuro-endocrine tumors (NET). The aim of our study was to compare three different commercially available CgA ELISA kits and to evaluate their analytical and clinical performance. CgA was measured with three different commercial ELISA kits on leftover sera from 40 patients: Chromoa R assay (Cis), Hu chromogranin A ELISA (Dia), and Neolisa chromogranin A (Euro).
Analytical and clinical performance was evaluated by measuring precision, area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, correlation coefficients and Passing and Bablok regression analyses. Precision (CV%) was acceptable for all evaluated ELISA’s (Cis 10.3%; Dia 9.8%; Euro 14.5%). The area under the curve (AUC) was comparable between the three assays (Cis 0.693; Dia 0.627; Euro 0.721).
Sensitivity varied between 41.2% and 64.7%. Specificity ranged between 69.6% and 82.6%. Pairwise comparison revealed significant systematic and proportional differences when comparing Cis versus Dia (Cis = 25.30 + 1.94 Dia) and Euro versus Dia (Euro = 26.54 + 1.92 Dia).
Analytical and clinical performance was comparable for the three ELISA’s. CgA results obtained with different ELISA’s are not interchangeable. Abbreviations CgA: Chromogranin A; ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IRMA: Immunoradiometric assay; NET: Neuroendocrine tumors; PPI: Proton-pump inhibitors; RIA: Radioimmunoassay.
Inter-laboratory comparison of 2 ELISA kits used for foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein serology
Serologic assays used to detect antibodies to nonstructural proteins (NSPs) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) are used for disease surveillance in endemic countries, and are essential to providing evidence for freedom of the disease with or without vaccination and to recover the free status of a country after an outbreak. In a 5-site inter-laboratory study, we compared the performance of 2 commercial NSP ELISA kits (ID Screen FMD NSP ELISA single day [short] and overnight protocols, ID.Vet; PrioCHECK FMDV NS antibody ELISA, Thermo Fisher Scientific).
The overall concordance between the PrioCHECK and ID Screen test was 93.8% (95% CI: 92.0-95.2%) and 94.8% (95% CI: 93.1-96.1%) for the overnight and short ID Screen incubation protocols, respectively. Our results indicate that the assays (including the 2 different formats of the ID Screen test) can be used interchangeably in post-outbreak serosurveillance.
Evaluation of three ELISA kits for the screening of colistin residue in porcine and poultry muscle according to the European guideline for the validation of screening methods
Colistin is a polypeptide antibiotic mainly used in porcine and poultry to treat gastrointestinal infections. It has been included by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in the list of critically important human antibiotics of high priority for antimicrobial resistance since 2017.
Therefore, it is necessary to develop specific and sensitive screening methods for this molecule. Screening for colistin with immunoassays is an interesting alternative to LC-MS/MS screening methods. The performance of three commercially available ELISA kits was evaluated in poultry and porcine muscles for the detection of colistin in regards to its European maximum residue limit (MRL) (150 µg/kg).
The applicability of the three ELISA kits to the detection of colistin at or below the MRL in porcine and poultry muscles was demonstrated. The detection capabilities (CCβ) of two kits were or lower than or equal to the MRL (150 µg/kg). The lowest detection capability (30 µg/kg) was achieved with the third ELISA kit. The specificity of the three kits was very satisfactory (false positive rates 0%). The three kits are very specific for the detection of colistin (colistin A and B) and polymyxin B.
Procalcitonin Detection in Veterinary Species: Investigation of Commercial ELISA Kits
In human medicine, procalcitonin (PCT), the precursor of calcitonin, is used for the rapid identification of the origin and severity of sepsis. In veterinary medicine, PCT has been studied in horses, cattle, and dogs, but the use of PCT in diagnostic and/or prognostic settings is not possible because of the lack of validated assays to obtain reference ranges. The aim of the present study was the investigation of commercially available ELISA kits for the detection of canine and equine PCT in plasma samples.
Validation of the ELISA kits was performed by using species-specific recombinant proteins spiked both in plasma and buffer samples; linearity, limit of detection (LOD), recovery, and intra-assay and inter-assay variability were calculated. Moreover, clinical samples obtained from sick and healthy animals were also analyzed with the tested kits. Canine PCT was measured with a recombinant canine and a canine PCT ELISA kit. Equine PCT was measured with an equine and a human ELISA PCT kit.
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Our data demonstrate that the canine recombinant PCT ELISA kit can be used to measure canine PCT in plasma samples, showing an intra-assay and inter-assay coefficient of variation less than 20% and a LOD of 11 pg/mL, whereas the present results do not support the use of the canine PCT ELISA kit. The human PCT ELISA kit is suitable to detect equine PCT with a LOD of 56 ng/mL, whereas the equine PCT ELISA kit did not detect recombinant equine PCT.