A critical review of the specifications and performance of antibody and DNA-based methods for detection and quantification of allergens in foods

Despite the availability of a large number of antibody and DNA based methods for detection and quantification of allergens in food there remain significant difficulties in selecting the optimum technique to employ. Published methods from research groups mostly contain sufficient detail concerning target antigen, calibration procedures and method performance to allow replication by others. However, routine allergen testing by the food industry relies upon commercialised test kits and frequently the suppliers provide disappointingly little specification detail on the grounds that this is proprietary information.

Rabbit BRAIN ACETONE POWDER VARISENS(250-g)

41170-1 250 g
EUR 3243.76

NuGlo (luminol) ECL Substrate Kit for Western blot, 250 mls

80215-250 1 kit
EUR 164

PEG-it Virus Precipitation Solution (250 mL aliquot)

LV825A-1 250 ml
EUR 777

AXYPREP MAG DYECLEAN KIT- 250 ML - 25000 PREPS.

MAG-DYECL-250 1/pk
EUR 4182
Description: Bioscience Mag Beads; Magnetic Dye

Disposable Meat Sample Plastic tubes with caps (5 ml) (250/pk)

MST5-250 1 pk
EUR 103

Ascochlorin

A105-0.5MG 0.5 mg
EUR 331

Ascochlorin

A105-2.5MG 2.5 mg
EUR 1082

250 ML SPINNER FLASK, 70MM+B707 CENTRE NECK, 2 X 32 MM SIDEARMS

4500-250 1/pk
EUR 502
Description: Bioprocess Vessels; Spinner Flask 70

AXYPREP FRAGMENTSELECT-I KIT- 250 ML - 1900 PREPS

MAG-FRAG-I-250 1/pk
EUR 1953
Description: Bioscience Mag Beads; Magnetic Fragment Select

CTGF Connective Tissue Growth Factor Human Recombinant Protein (182-250 a.a.)

PROTP29279-1 Regular: 20ug
EUR 317
Description: The Connective Tissue Growth Factor amino acids 182-250, produced in E.Coli, is a fusion protein with His Tag (4 kDa), having a total molecular mass of 15 kDa.

AXYPREP MAG PCR NORMALIZER KIT- 250 ML - 1920 PREPS

MAG-PCR-NM-250 1/pk
EUR 1835
Description: Bioscience Mag Beads; Magnetic PCR Normaliser

Native Swine (Bovine) Trypsin-Chymotrypsin 1:250

PHAM-379 1kg
EUR 702

Navy Lysis Kit 250

NAVYE5 250pack
EUR 547
Description: Bead lysis kits for the homogenization of large, tough samples. Pack of 250, 1.5mL Eppendorf Safe-Lock tubes prefilled with stainless steel beads.

Orange Lysis Kit 250

ORANGEE5-RNA 250pack
EUR 537
Description: Bead lysis kits for extracting bacteria or generating single cell suspensions from tissue samples. Pack of 250, 1.5mL Eppendorf Safe-Lock tubes prefilled with stainless steel beads. RNase free.

AKAP 250 Polyclonal Antibody

ES8070-100ul 100ul
EUR 279
Description: A Rabbit Polyclonal antibody against AKAP 250 from Human. This antibody is tested and validated for IHC, IF, WB, ELISA

AKAP 250 Polyclonal Antibody

ES8070-50ul 50ul
EUR 207
Description: A Rabbit Polyclonal antibody against AKAP 250 from Human. This antibody is tested and validated for IHC, IF, WB, ELISA

Green Lysis Kit 250

GREENE5 250pack
EUR 468
Description: Bead lysis kits for the homogenization of small, tough samples. Pack of 250, 1.5mL Eppendorf Safe-Lock tubes prefilled with beads.

Pink Lysis Kit 250

PINKE5 250pack
EUR 457
Description: Bead lysis kits for the homogenization of small, soft or medium-tough samples. Pack of 250, 1.5mL Eppendorf Safe-Lock tubes prefilled with stabilized ceramic beads.

YELLOW Lysis Kit 250

YELLOWE5 250pack
EUR 548
Description: Bead lysis kits for the homogenization of small cell suspensions (ex - E. coli). Pack of 250, 1.5mL Eppendorf Safe-Lock tubes prefilled with stabilized ceramic beads.

PLASTIC CLAMP, 250 ML

480150 1/pk
EUR 65
Description: Lab Equipment; Constant Temperature Equipment

AKAP 250 Polyclonal Antibody

ABP57071-003ml 0.03ml
EUR 158
Description: A polyclonal antibody for detection of AKAP 250 from Human. This AKAP 250 antibody is for IHC-P, IF, ELISA. It is affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogenand is unconjugated. The antibody is produced in rabbit by using as an immunogen synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human AKAP 250 at AA range: 270-350

AKAP 250 Polyclonal Antibody

ABP57071-01ml 0.1ml
EUR 289
Description: A polyclonal antibody for detection of AKAP 250 from Human. This AKAP 250 antibody is for IHC-P, IF, ELISA. It is affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogenand is unconjugated. The antibody is produced in rabbit by using as an immunogen synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human AKAP 250 at AA range: 270-350

AKAP 250 Polyclonal Antibody

ABP57071-02ml 0.2ml
EUR 414
Description: A polyclonal antibody for detection of AKAP 250 from Human. This AKAP 250 antibody is for IHC-P, IF, ELISA. It is affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogenand is unconjugated. The antibody is produced in rabbit by using as an immunogen synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human AKAP 250 at AA range: 270-350

TGFBR2 (pS225 / 250) Antibody

abx333097-100ul 100 ul
EUR 467

Red Lysis Kit 250

REDE5 250pack
EUR 520
Description: Bead lysis kits for the homogenization of large, soft or medium-tough samples. Pack of 250, 1.5mL Eppendorf Safe-Lock tubes prefilled with stabilized ceramic beads.

Anti-AKAP 250 antibody

STJ91531 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to AKAP 250.

ScrF I unit: 250

YRSCRF1 1 vial Ask for price

Peroxidase (250 U/mg)

HRP-02 100 mg
EUR 712

PEG3-tetrazine, 250 mg

1978-250mg 250 mg
EUR 305

Gold Colloid (250 nm)

62R-GC016 20 ml
EUR 154
Description: 250 nm Colloidal Gold particle suspension

TGFBR2 antibody (Ser225/250)

70R-36861 100 ug
EUR 327
Description: Rabbit Polyclonal TGFBR2 antibody (Ser225/250)

Recombinant Caenorhabditis Elegans cutc-1 Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Ly3276-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3789
Description: Caenorhabditis Elegans copper homeostasis protein cutC homolog (cutc-1), recombination protein.

Recombinant Caenorhabditis Elegans cutc-1 Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Ly3276-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2704
Description: Caenorhabditis Elegans copper homeostasis protein cutC homolog (cutc-1), recombination protein.

Recombinant Caenorhabditis Elegans cutc-1 Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Ly3276-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1838
Description: Caenorhabditis Elegans copper homeostasis protein cutC homolog (cutc-1), recombination protein.

Recombinant RVFV L Protein (aa 1-250) [His]

VAng-Wyb7369-100g 100 µg
EUR 1372
Description: Rift Valley fever virus (TAN/Dod-002/07) L protein, recombinant protein.

Recombinant RVFV L Protein (aa 1-250) [His]

VAng-Wyb7369-20g 20 µg
EUR 573
Description: Rift Valley fever virus (TAN/Dod-002/07) L protein, recombinant protein.

Recombinant RVFV L Protein (aa 1-250) [His]

VAng-Wyb7369-50g 50 µg
EUR 891
Description: Rift Valley fever virus (TAN/Dod-002/07) L protein, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Trypanosoma Brucei TIM Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Wyb8278-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3789
Description: Trypanosoma Brucei brucei Triosephosphate isomerase, glycosomal protein, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Trypanosoma Brucei TIM Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Wyb8278-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2704
Description: Trypanosoma Brucei brucei Triosephosphate isomerase, glycosomal protein, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Trypanosoma Brucei TIM Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Wyb8278-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1838
Description: Trypanosoma Brucei brucei Triosephosphate isomerase, glycosomal protein, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Rv1359 Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj0219-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1840
Description: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Uncharacterized protein Rv1359/MT1403 (Rv1359, MT1403), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis MAP_1030 Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj0928-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1840
Description: Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Probable transcriptional regulatory protein MAP_1030 (MAP_1030), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj1108-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1840
Description: Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Avium MAV_3481 Protein(aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj1293-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1840
Description: Mycobacterium Avium (strain 104) Probable transcriptional regulatory protein MAV_3481 (MAV_3481), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Avium thyX Protein(aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj1488-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1840
Description: Mycobacterium Avium (strain 104) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Ulcerans atpB Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj4039-inquire inquire Ask for price
Description: Mycobacterium Ulcerans (strain Agy99) ATP synthase subunit a (atpB), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Gilvum thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj4283-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3789
Description: Mycobacterium Gilvum (strain PYR-GCK) (Mycobacterium flavescens (strain ATCC 700078 / PYR-GCK)) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Gilvum thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj4283-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2704
Description: Mycobacterium Gilvum (strain PYR-GCK) (Mycobacterium flavescens (strain ATCC 700078 / PYR-GCK)) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Gilvum thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj4283-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1838
Description: Mycobacterium Gilvum (strain PYR-GCK) (Mycobacterium flavescens (strain ATCC 700078 / PYR-GCK)) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Marinum atpB Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj4310-inquire inquire Ask for price
Description: Mycobacterium Marinum (strain ATCC BAA-535 / M) ATP synthase subunit a (atpB), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Marinum thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj4594-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3789
Description: Mycobacterium Marinum (strain ATCC BAA-535 / M) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Marinum thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj4594-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2704
Description: Mycobacterium Marinum (strain ATCC BAA-535 / M) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Marinum thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj4594-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1838
Description: Mycobacterium Marinum (strain ATCC BAA-535 / M) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj5050-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3789
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj5050-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2704
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj5050-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1838
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Vanbaalenii thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj5369-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3789
Description: Mycobacterium Vanbaalenii (strain DSM 7251 / PYR-1) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Vanbaalenii thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj5369-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2704
Description: Mycobacterium Vanbaalenii (strain DSM 7251 / PYR-1) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Vanbaalenii thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj5369-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1838
Description: Mycobacterium Vanbaalenii (strain DSM 7251 / PYR-1) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Abscessus thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj5598-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3789
Description: Mycobacterium Abscessus (strain ATCC 19977 / DSM 44196) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Abscessus thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj5598-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2704
Description: Mycobacterium Abscessus (strain ATCC 19977 / DSM 44196) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Abscessus thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj5598-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1838
Description: Mycobacterium Abscessus (strain ATCC 19977 / DSM 44196) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Clostridium Novyi cobS Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx9926-inquire inquire Ask for price
Description: Clostridium Novyi (strain NT) Cobalamin synthase, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Campylobacter Jejuni murI Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Ly2777-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3789
Description: Campylobacter Jejuni subsp. jejuni serotype O:2 (strain NCTC 11168) glutamate racemase (murI), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Campylobacter Jejuni murI Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Ly2777-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2704
Description: Campylobacter Jejuni subsp. jejuni serotype O:2 (strain NCTC 11168) glutamate racemase (murI), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Campylobacter Jejuni murI Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Ly2777-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1838
Description: Campylobacter Jejuni subsp. jejuni serotype O:2 (strain NCTC 11168) glutamate racemase (murI), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Neisseria Gonorrhoeae rsmJ Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Wyb2393-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3771
Description: Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase J, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Neisseria Gonorrhoeae rsmJ Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Wyb2393-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2694
Description: Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase J, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Neisseria Gonorrhoeae rsmJ Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Wyb2393-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1840
Description: Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase J, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Schizosaccharomyces Pombe pps1 Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj5749-inquire inquire Ask for price
Description: Schizosaccharomyces Pombe (strain 972 / ATCC 24843) (Fission yeast) Uncharacterized CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferase class-I family protein C1442.12 (SPCC1442.12) (pps1), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Avium MAV_3481 Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj2623-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3794
Description: Mycobacterium Avium (strain 104) Probable transcriptional regulatory protein MAV_3481 (MAV_3481), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Avium MAV_3481 Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj2623-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2706
Description: Mycobacterium Avium (strain 104) Probable transcriptional regulatory protein MAV_3481 (MAV_3481), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Avium MAV_3481 Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj2623-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1840
Description: Mycobacterium Avium (strain 104) Probable transcriptional regulatory protein MAV_3481 (MAV_3481), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Avium thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj2814-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3794
Description: Mycobacterium Avium (strain 104) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Avium thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj2814-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2706
Description: Mycobacterium Avium (strain 104) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Avium thyX Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Yyj2814-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1840
Description: Mycobacterium Avium (strain 104) Thymidylate synthase thyX (thyX), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Shigella Dysenteriae rsmJ Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx07181-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3789
Description: Shigella Dysenteriae serotype 1 (strain Sd197) Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase J, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Shigella Dysenteriae rsmJ Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx07181-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2704
Description: Shigella Dysenteriae serotype 1 (strain Sd197) Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase J, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Shigella Dysenteriae rsmJ Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx07181-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1838
Description: Shigella Dysenteriae serotype 1 (strain Sd197) Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase J, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Clostridium Acetobutylicum dapB Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx7542-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3993
Description: Clostridium Acetobutylicum Dihydrodipicolinate reductase, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Clostridium Acetobutylicum dapB Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx7542-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2694
Description: Clostridium Acetobutylicum Dihydrodipicolinate reductase, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Clostridium Acetobutylicum dapB Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx7542-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1840
Description: Clostridium Acetobutylicum Dihydrodipicolinate reductase, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Corynebacterium Diphtheriae lipB Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx2889-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3993
Description: Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Octanoyltransferase, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Corynebacterium Diphtheriae lipB Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx2889-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2694
Description: Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Octanoyltransferase, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Corynebacterium Diphtheriae lipB Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx2889-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1840
Description: Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Octanoyltransferase, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Corynebacterium Diphtheriae DIP1378 Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx3016-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3993
Description: Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Probable transcriptional regulatory protein DIP1378, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Corynebacterium Diphtheriae DIP1378 Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx3016-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2694
Description: Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Probable transcriptional regulatory protein DIP1378, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Corynebacterium Diphtheriae DIP1378 Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx3016-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1840
Description: Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Probable transcriptional regulatory protein DIP1378, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Legionella Pneumophila trmD Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx3939-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3993
Description: Legionella Pneumophila tRNA (guanine-N (1)-)-methyltransferase, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Legionella Pneumophila trmD Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx3939-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2694
Description: Legionella Pneumophila tRNA (guanine-N (1)-)-methyltransferase, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Legionella Pneumophila trmD Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx3939-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 1840
Description: Legionella Pneumophila tRNA (guanine-N (1)-)-methyltransferase, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Bordetella Avium aat Protein (aa 1-250)

VAng-Lsx4213-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 3993
Description: Bordetella Avium Leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA--protein transferase, recombinant protein.

In this review we have made a critical assessment of the published literature describing the performance of both commercial and non-commercial test kits for food allergens over the period 2008-2018. Mass spectrometric methods, which have the potential to become reference methods for allergens, are not covered in this review.

Available information on the specifications of commercial ELISA and LFD test kits are tabulated for milk, egg and peanut allergens, where possible linking to publications concerning collaborative studies and proficiency testing. For a number of commercial PCR test kits, specifications provided by manufacturers for detection of a small selection of allergen are tabulated. In conclusion we support the views of others of the critical need for allergen reference materials as the way forward to improve the comparability of different testing strategies in foods.